11 Жов There Is Already Widespread Agreement On Universal Standards
To resolve a relative development conflict, a leader must ask the following question: Would the practice at home be acceptable if my country watered itself at a similar stage of economic development? Let`s look at the difference between wage and safety standards in the United States and Angola, where citizens accept lower standards on both points. If a U.S. oil company hires Angolans to work on an Angolan offshore oil rig, can the company pay them lower wages than U.S. workers in the Gulf of Mexico? Sensible people must answer in the affirmative if the alternative for Angola is the loss of both foreign investment and jobs. If relative economic conditions do not fuel tensions, there is a more objective test to solve ethical problems. Managers should only consider an acceptable practice if they are able to answer the following two questions in the negative: is it possible to do business successfully in the host country without carrying out the practice? and is the practice a violation of human nuclear value? Japanese gifts are a perfect example of a conflict of cultural tradition. Most experienced businessmen, both Japanese and non-Japanese, would agree that it would be virtually impossible to do business in Japan without resuming the practice. Is the gift in danger for a human value? I cannot identify anyone against whom it is contrary. As a result, donation may be allowed for foreign companies in Japan, even if it conflicts with ethical attitudes on the domestic territory. In fact, this conclusion is widely accepted, even by companies like Texas Instruments and IBM, which have openly opposed corruption.
How can managers discover the limits of moral space? In other words, how can they learn to distinguish a value in tension with its own from an unbearable value? To help leaders develop good ethical judgment, companies need to be aware of their core values and codes of conduct. But even the most explicit guidelines cannot always provide answers. This is especially true in the most delicate ethical dilemmas, where the ethical standards of the host country are not only different, but also lower than those of the country of origin. Managers need to realize that when countries have different ethical standards, there are two types of conflicts that are frequent. Each type needs his own line of reasoning. If cultures have different standards of ethical behavior – and different ways of dealing with unethical behavior – a company that takes an absolutist approach can make a catastrophic mistake. When a manager in a large US. .